2006 Regular Session
To: Juvenile Justice; Corrections
By: Representative Flaggs, Banks, Clark, Hines
AN ACT TO CREATE THE JUVENILE TRANSFER REFORM ACT 0F 2006; TO AMEND SECTION 43-21-151, MISSISSIPPI CODE OF 1972, TO REMOVE CERTAIN ACTS COMMITTED BY A CHILD FROM THE EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION OF THE CIRCUIT COURT; TO AMEND SECTION 43-21-157, MISSISSIPPI CODE OF 1972, TO AUTHORIZE THE CIRCUIT COURT TO INVOKE DUAL JURISDICTION THUS ALLOWING SUCH COURT TO IMPOSE A JUVENILE DISPOSITION WHILE SIMULTANEOUSLY IMPOSING A CRIMINAL SENTENCE, AFTER A CHILD IS TRANSFERRED TO CIRCUIT COURT AND IS CONVICTED; TO AMEND SECTION 47-7-3, MISSISSIPPI CODE OF 1972, TO EXEMPT THE PAROLE ELIGIBILITY EXCEPTIONS FROM CERTAIN OFFENDERS WHO WERE UNDER 18 WHEN HE OR SHE COMMITTED AN OFFENSE; TO AMEND SECTION 99-19-1, MISSISSIPPI CODE OF 1972, IN CONFORMITY THERETO; AND FOR RELATED PURPOSES.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF MISSISSIPPI:
SECTION 1. Section 43-21-151, Mississippi Code of 1972, is amended as follows:
43-21-151. (1) The youth court shall have exclusive original jurisdiction in all proceedings concerning a delinquent child, a child in need of supervision, a neglected child, an abused child or a dependent child except * * * when a charge of abuse of a child first arises in the course of a custody action between the parents of the child already pending in the chancery court and no notice of such abuse was provided prior to such chancery proceedings, the chancery court may proceed with the investigation, hearing and determination of such abuse charge as a part of its hearing and determination of the custody issue as between the parents, notwithstanding the other provisions of the Youth Court Law. The proceedings in chancery court on the abuse charge shall be confidential in the same manner as provided in youth court proceedings.
When a child is expelled from the public schools, the youth court shall be notified of the act of expulsion and the act or acts constituting the basis for expulsion.
(2) Jurisdiction of the child in the cause shall attach at the time of the offense and shall continue thereafter for that offense until the child's twentieth birthday, unless sooner terminated by order of the youth court. The youth court shall not have jurisdiction over offenses committed by a child on or after his eighteenth birthday, or over offenses committed by a child on or after his seventeenth birthday where such offenses would be a felony if committed by an adult.
(3) No child who has not reached his thirteenth birthday shall be held criminally responsible or criminally prosecuted for a misdemeanor or felony; however, the parent, guardian or custodian of such child may be civilly liable for any criminal acts of such child. No child under the jurisdiction of the youth court shall be held criminally responsible or criminally prosecuted by any court for any act designated as a delinquent act, unless jurisdiction is transferred to another court under Section 43-21-157.
(4) The youth court shall also have jurisdiction of offenses committed by a child which have been transferred to the youth court by an order of a circuit court of this state having original jurisdiction of the offense, as provided by Section 43-21-159.
(5) The youth court shall regulate and approve the use of teen court as provided in Section 43-21-753.
SECTION 2. Section 43-21-157, Mississippi Code of 1972, is amended as follows:
43-21-157. (1) If a child who has reached his or her thirteenth birthday is charged by petition to be a delinquent child, the youth court, either on motion of the youth court prosecutor or on the youth court's own motion, after a hearing as hereinafter provided, may, in its discretion, transfer jurisdiction of the alleged offense described in the petition or a lesser included offense to the criminal court which would have trial jurisdiction of such offense if committed by an adult. The child shall be represented by counsel in transfer proceedings.
(2) A motion to transfer shall be filed on a day prior to the date set for the adjudicatory hearing but not more than ten (10) days after the filing of the petition. The youth court may order a transfer study at any time after the motion to transfer is filed. The transfer study and any other social record which the youth court will consider at the transfer hearing shall be made available to the child's counsel prior to the hearing. Summons shall be served in the same manner as other summons under this chapter with a copy of the motion to transfer and the petition attached thereto.
(3) The transfer hearing shall be bifurcated. At the transfer hearing, the youth court shall first determine whether probable cause exists to believe that the child committed the alleged offense. For the purpose of the transfer hearing only, the child may, with the assistance of counsel, waive the determination of probable cause.
(4) Upon such a finding of probable cause, the youth court may transfer jurisdiction of the alleged offense and the youth if the youth court finds by clear and convincing evidence that there are no reasonable prospects of rehabilitation within the juvenile justice system.
(5) The factors which shall be considered by the youth court in determining the reasonable prospects of rehabilitation within the juvenile justice system are:
(a) Whether or not the alleged offense constituted a substantial danger to the public;
(b) The seriousness of the alleged offense;
(c) Whether or not the transfer is required to protect the community;
(d) Whether or not the alleged offense was committed in an aggressive, violent, premeditated or willful manner;
(e) Whether the alleged offense was against persons or against property, greater weight being given to the offense against persons, especially if personal injury resulted;
(f) The sophistication, maturity and educational background of the child;
(g) The child's home situation, emotional condition and life-style;
(h) The history of the child, including experience with the juvenile justice system, other courts, probation, commitments to juvenile institutions or other placements;
(i) Whether or not the child can be retained in the juvenile justice system long enough for effective treatment or rehabilitation;
(j) The dispositional resources available to the juvenile justice system;
(k) Dispositional resources available to the adult correctional system for the child if treated as an adult;
(l) Whether the alleged offense was committed on school property, public or private, or at any school-sponsored event, and constituted a substantial danger to other students;
(m) Any other factors deemed relevant by the youth court; and
(n) Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit the transfer of jurisdiction of an alleged offense and a child if that child, at the time of the transfer hearing, previously has not been placed in a juvenile institution.
(6) If the youth court transfers jurisdiction of the alleged offense to a criminal court, the youth court shall enter a transfer order containing:
(a) Facts showing that the youth court had jurisdiction of the cause and of the parties;
(b) Facts showing that the child was represented by counsel;
(c) Facts showing that the hearing was held in the presence of the child and his counsel;
(d) A recital of the findings of probable cause and the facts and reasons underlying the youth court's decision to transfer jurisdiction of the alleged offense;
(e) The conditions of custody or release of the child pending criminal court proceedings, including bail or recognizance as the case may justify, as well as a designation of the custodian for the time being; and
(f) A designation of the alleged offense transferred and of the court to which the transfer is made and a direction to the clerk to forward for filing in such court a certified copy of the transfer order of the youth court.
(7) The testimony of the child respondent at a transfer hearing conducted pursuant to this chapter shall not be admissible against the child in any proceeding other than the transfer hearing.
(8) When jurisdiction of an offense is transferred to the circuit court, * * * the jurisdiction of the youth court over the youth is forever terminated, except that such jurisdiction is not forever terminated if the circuit court transfers or remands the transferred case to the youth court or if a child who has been transferred to the circuit court or is in the original jurisdiction of the circuit court is not convicted. However, when jurisdiction of an offense is transferred to the circuit court pursuant to this section * * * the circuit court shall thereafter assume and retain jurisdiction of any felony offenses committed by such youth without any additional transfer proceedings. Any misdemeanor offenses committed by youth who are in circuit court jurisdiction pursuant to this section or Section 43-21-151 shall be prosecuted in the court which would have jurisdiction over that offense if committed by an adult without any additional transfer proceedings. The circuit court may review the transfer proceedings on motion of the transferred child. Such review shall be on the record of the hearing in the youth court. The circuit court shall remand the offense to the youth court if there is no substantial evidence to support the order of the youth court. The circuit court may also review the conditions of custody or release pending criminal court proceedings.
(9) When any youth has been the subject of a transfer to circuit court for an offense committed in any county of the state * * * that transfer * * * shall be recognized by all other courts of the state and no subsequent offense committed by such youth in any county of the state shall be in the jurisdiction of the youth court unless transferred to the youth court pursuant to Section 43-21-159(3). Transfers from youth courts of other states shall be recognized by the courts of this state and no youth who has a pending charge or a conviction in the adult court system of any other state shall be in the jurisdiction of the youth courts of this state, but such youths shall be in the jurisdiction of the circuit court for any felony committed in this state or in the jurisdiction of the court of competent jurisdiction for any misdemeanor committed in this state.
(10) (a) When a child is transferred to circuit court and his or her prosecution results in a conviction or guilty plea, the circuit court may invoke dual jurisdiction of both the criminal code and the youth court statute as set forth in this subsection. The circuit court is authorized to impose a juvenile disposition and simultaneously impose a criminal sentence, the execution of which shall be suspended pursuant to the provisions of this subsection. Successful completion of the juvenile disposition ordered shall be a condition for the suspended criminal sentence. The court may order an offender into the custody of the Department of Human Services if, after considering the factors set forth in Section 43-21-603(3) paragraphs (a) through (e), the court determines that a dispositional alternative provided in Section 43-21-605 is appropriate to serve both the needs of the child and protect public safety.
(b) If probable cause exists to believe that the offender has violated a condition of the suspended sentences or committed a new offense, the court shall conduct a hearing on the violation charged, unless the offender waives such hearing. If a violation is established, the court may continue or revoke the juvenile disposition, impose the adult criminal sanctions or enter such other order as it may see fit.
(c) When an offender has received a suspended sentence pursuant to this section and the division determines the child is beyond the scope of its treatment programs, the Department of Human Services may petition the court to transfer the custody of the offender. The court shall hold a hearing and shall:
(i) Revoke the suspension and order that the offender be taken into the custody of the Department of Corrections; or
(ii) Order that the offender be placed on probation.
(d) When an offender reaches the age of eighteen (18) or after the juvenile disposition expires, the court shall hold a hearing to determine if the offender has been sufficiently rehabilitated. Among other relevant factors, the court shall consider academic progress, medical and mental health history, facility disciplinary records and recommendations of the youth court counselor and the Department of Human Services. Based on evidence presented at the hearing, the court shall:
(i) Revoke the suspension and direct that the offender be taken into immediate custody of the Department of Corrections; or
(ii) Direct that the offender be placed on probation; or
(iii) Release the offender from the terms of the juvenile disposition and the suspended criminal sentence.
(11) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, before sentencing any child, the court shall conduct a sentencing hearing to consider the factors set forth in Section 43-21-603(3) paragraphs (a) through (e). The court retains discretion to impose a mandatory sentence after a hearing and consideration of the factors set forth in Section 43-21-603(3) paragraphs (a) through (e).
(12) No judge, under any circumstances, shall order any child under this section to Oakley or Columbia Training School.
SECTION 3. Section 47-7-3, Mississippi Code of 1972, is amended as follows:
47-7-3. (1) Every prisoner who has been convicted of any offense against the State of Mississippi, and is confined in the execution of a judgment of such conviction in the Mississippi Department of Corrections for a definite term or terms of one (1) year or over, or for the term of his or her natural life, whose record of conduct shows that such prisoner has observed the rules of the department, and who has served not less than one-fourth (1/4) of the total of such term or terms for which such prisoner was sentenced, or, if sentenced to serve a term or terms of thirty (30) years or more, or, if sentenced for the term of the natural life of such prisoner, has served not less than ten (10) years of such life sentence, may be released on parole as hereinafter provided, except that:
(a) No prisoner convicted as a confirmed and habitual criminal under the provisions of Sections 99-19-81 through 99-19-87 shall be eligible for parole;
(b) Any person who shall have been convicted of a sex crime shall not be released on parole except for a person under the age of nineteen (19) who has been convicted under Section 97-3-67;
(c) No one shall be eligible for parole until he shall have served one (1) year of his sentence, unless such person has accrued any meritorious earned time allowances, in which case he shall be eligible for parole if he has served (i) nine (9) months of his sentence or sentences, when his sentence or sentences is two (2) years or less; (ii) ten (10) months of his sentence or sentences when his sentence or sentences is more than two (2) years but no more than five (5) years; and (iii) one (1) year of his sentence or sentences when his sentence or sentences is more than five (5) years;
(d) (i) No person shall be eligible for parole who shall, on or after January 1, 1977, be convicted of robbery or attempted robbery through the display of a firearm until he shall have served ten (10) years if sentenced to a term or terms of more than ten (10) years or if sentenced for the term of the natural life of such person. If such person is sentenced to a term or terms of ten (10) years or less, then such person shall not be eligible for parole. The provisions of this paragraph (d) shall also apply to any person who shall commit robbery or attempted robbery on or after July 1, 1982, through the display of a deadly weapon. This subparagraph (d)(i) shall not apply to persons convicted after September 30, 1994;
(ii) No person shall be eligible for parole who shall, on or after October 1, 1994, be convicted of robbery, attempted robbery or carjacking as provided in Section 97-3-115 et seq., through the display of a firearm or drive-by shooting as provided in Section 97-3-109. The provisions of this subparagraph (d)(ii) shall also apply to any person who shall commit robbery, attempted robbery, carjacking or a drive-by shooting on or after October 1, 1994, through the display of a deadly weapon;
(e) No person shall be eligible for parole who, on or after July 1, 1994, is charged, tried, convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment without eligibility for parole under the provisions of Section 99-19-101;
(f) No person shall be eligible for parole who is charged, tried, convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment under the provisions of Section 99-19-101;
(g) No person shall be eligible for parole who is convicted or whose suspended sentence is revoked after June 30, 1995, except that a first offender convicted of a nonviolent crime after January 1, 2000, may be eligible for parole if the offender meets the requirements in subsection (1) and this paragraph. In addition to other requirements, if a first offender is convicted of a drug or driving under the influence felony, the offender must complete a drug and alcohol rehabilitation program prior to parole or the offender may be required to complete a post-release drug and alcohol program as a condition of parole. For purposes of this paragraph, "nonviolent crime" means a felony other than homicide, robbery, manslaughter, sex crimes, arson, burglary of an occupied dwelling, aggravated assault, kidnapping, felonious abuse of vulnerable adults, felonies with enhanced penalties, the sale or manufacture of a controlled substance under the Uniform Controlled Substances Law, felony child abuse, or any crime under Section 97-5-33 or Section 97-5-39(2) or a violation of Section 63-11-30(5) resulting in death, or serious bodily injury resulting in the loss of a limb or dismemberment, loss of eyesight, a coma, permanent dysfunction of any vital organ, paralysis or resulting in an individual's permanent bedridden state. For purposes of this paragraph, "first offender" means a person who at the time of sentencing has not been convicted of a felony on a previous occasion in any court or courts of the United States or in any state or territory thereof. In addition, a first time offender incarcerated for committing the crime of possession of a controlled substance under the Uniform Controlled Substances Law after July 1, 1995, shall be eligible for parole as provided for such offenders in this paragraph after July 1, 2000.
(h) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the parole eligibility exceptions contained in paragraphs (a) through (g) of this subsection shall not apply to any offender who was under the age of eighteen (18) at the time he or she committed the offense. This provision is exempt from the terms of Section 99-19-1.
(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an inmate shall not be eligible to receive earned time, good time or any other administrative reduction of time which shall reduce the time necessary to be served for parole eligibility as provided in subsection (1) of this section; however, this subsection shall not apply to the advancement of parole eligibility dates pursuant to the Prison Overcrowding Emergency Powers Act. Moreover, meritorious earned time allowances may be used to reduce the time necessary to be served for parole eligibility as provided in paragraph (c) of subsection (1) of this section.
(3) (a) The State Parole Board shall by rules and regulations establish a method of determining a tentative parole hearing date for each eligible offender taken into the custody of the Department of Corrections. The tentative parole hearing date shall be determined within ninety (90) days after the department has assumed custody of the offender. Such tentative parole hearing date shall be calculated by a formula taking into account the offender's age upon first commitment, number of prior incarcerations, prior probation or parole failures, the severity and the violence of the offense committed, employment history and other criteria which in the opinion of the board tend to validly and reliably predict the length of incarceration necessary before the offender can be successfully paroled.
(4) Any inmate within twenty-four (24) months of his parole eligibility date and who meets the criteria established by the classification board shall receive priority for placement in any educational development and job training programs. Any inmate refusing to participate in an educational development or job training program may be ineligible for parole.
SECTION 4. Section 99-19-1, Mississippi Code of 1972, is amended as follows:
99-19-1. Except as provided in Section 47-7-3, no statutory change of any law affecting a crime or its punishment or the collection of a penalty shall affect or defeat the prosecution of any crime committed prior to its enactment, or the collection of any penalty, whether such prosecution be instituted before or after such enactment; and all laws defining a crime or prescribing its punishment, or for the imposition of penalties, shall be continued in operation for the purpose of providing punishment for crimes committed under them, and for collection of such penalties, notwithstanding amendatory or repealing statutes, unless otherwise specially provided in such statutes.
SECTION 5. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its passage.