2005 Regular Session
To: Judiciary, Division B
By: Senator(s) White
AN ACT TO AMEND SECTIONS 99-3-28 AND 21-23-7, MISSISSIPPI CODE OF 1972, TO REQUIRE A PROBABLE CAUSE HEARING PRIOR TO ISSUANCE OF AN ARREST WARRANT BASED UPON COMPLAINT OR AFFIDAVIT; TO PROVIDE CERTAIN EXCEPTIONS; AND FOR RELATED PURPOSES.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF MISSISSIPPI:
SECTION 1. Section 99-3-28, Mississippi Code of 1972, is amended as follows:
99-3-28. (1) (a) Except as provided in subsection (2) of this section, before an arrest warrant shall be issued based upon a sworn complaint * * *, a probable cause hearing shall be held before a circuit court judge. The purpose of the hearing shall be to determine if adequate probable cause exists for the issuance of a warrant. All parties testifying in these proceedings shall do so under oath. The accused shall have the right to enter an appearance at the hearing, represented by legal counsel at his own expense, to hear the accusations and evidence against him; he may present evidence or testify in his own behalf.
(b) The authority receiving any such charge or complaint * * * shall immediately present same to the county prosecuting attorney having jurisdiction who shall immediately present the charge or complaint to a circuit judge in the judicial district where the action arose for disposition pursuant to this section.
(2) Nothing in this section shall prohibit the issuance of an arrest warrant by a circuit court judge upon presentation of probable cause, without the holding of a probable cause hearing, if adequate evidence is presented to satisfy the court that there is a significant risk that the accused will flee the court's jurisdiction or that the accused poses a threat to the safety or well-being of the public.
SECTION 2. Section 21-23-7, Mississippi Code of 1972, is amended as follows:
21-23-7. (1) The municipal judge shall hold court in a public building designated by the governing authorities of the municipality and may hold court every day except Sundays and legal holidays if the business of the municipality so requires; provided, however, the municipal judge may hold court outside the boundaries of the municipality but not more than within a sixty-mile radius of the municipality to handle preliminary matters and criminal matters such as initial appearances and felony preliminary hearings. The municipal judge shall have the jurisdiction to hear and determine, without a jury and without a record of the testimony, all cases charging violations of the municipal ordinances and state misdemeanor laws made offenses against the municipality and to punish offenders therefor as may be prescribed by law. All criminal proceedings shall be brought by sworn complaint filed in the municipal court. Such complaint shall state the essential elements of the offense charged and the statute or ordinance relied upon. Such complaint shall not be required to conclude with a general averment that the offense is against the peace and dignity of the state or in violation of the ordinances of the municipality. He may sit as a committing court in all felonies committed within the municipality, and he shall have the power to bind over the accused to the grand jury or to appear before the proper court having jurisdiction to try the same, and to set the amount of bail or refuse bail and commit the accused to jail in cases not bailable. The municipal judge is a conservator of the peace within his municipality. He may conduct preliminary hearings in all violations of the criminal laws of this state occurring within the municipality, and any person arrested for a violation of law within the municipality may be brought before him for initial appearance.
(2) In the discretion of the court, where the objects of justice would be more likely met, as an alternative to imposition or payment of fine and/or incarceration, the municipal judge shall have the power to sentence convicted offenders to work on a public service project where the court has established such a program of public service by written guidelines filed with the clerk for public record. Such programs shall provide for reasonable supervision of the offender and the work shall be commensurate with the fine and/or incarceration that would have ordinarily been imposed. Such program of public service may be utilized in the implementation of the provisions of Section 99-19-20, and public service work thereunder may be supervised by persons other than the sheriff.
(3) The municipal judge may solemnize marriages, take oaths, affidavits and acknowledgments, and issue orders, subpoenas, summonses, citations, warrants for search and arrest upon a finding of probable cause, and other such process under seal of the court to any county or municipality, in a criminal case, to be executed by the lawful authority of the county or the municipality of the respondent, and enforce obedience thereto. The absence of a seal shall not invalidate the process.
(4) When a person shall be charged with an offense in municipal court punishable by confinement, the municipal judge, being satisfied that such person is an indigent person and is unable to employ counsel, may, in the discretion of the court, appoint counsel from the membership of The Mississippi Bar residing in his county who shall represent him. Compensation for appointed counsel in criminal cases shall be approved and allowed by the municipal judge and shall be paid by the municipality. The maximum compensation shall not exceed Two Hundred Dollars ($200.00) for any one (1) case. The governing authorities of a municipality may, in their discretion, appoint a public defender(s) who must be a licensed attorney and who shall receive a salary to be fixed by the governing authorities.
(5) The municipal judge of any municipality is hereby authorized to suspend the sentence and to suspend the execution of the sentence, or any part thereof, on such terms as may be imposed by the municipal judge. However, the suspension of imposition or execution of a sentence hereunder may not be revoked after a period of two (2) years. The municipal judge shall have the power to establish and operate a probation program, dispute resolution program and other practices or procedures appropriate to the judiciary and designed to aid in the administration of justice. Any such program shall be established by the court with written policies and procedures filed with the clerk of the court for public record.
(6) Upon prior notice to the municipal prosecuting attorney and upon a showing in open court of rehabilitation, good conduct for a period of two (2) years since the last conviction in any court and that the best interest of society would be served, the court may, in its discretion, order the record of conviction of a person of any or all misdemeanors in that court expunged, and upon so doing the said person thereafter legally stands as though he had never been convicted of the said misdemeanor(s) and may lawfully so respond to any query of prior convictions. This order of expunction does not apply to the confidential records of law enforcement agencies and has no effect on the driving record of a person maintained under Title 63, Mississippi Code of 1972, or any other provision of said Title 63.
(7) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (6) of this section, a person who was convicted in municipal court of a misdemeanor before reaching his twenty-third birthday, excluding conviction for a traffic violation, and who is a first offender, may utilize the provisions of Section 99-19-71, to expunge such misdemeanor conviction.
(8) In the discretion of the court, a plea of nolo contendere may be entered to any charge in municipal court. Upon the entry of a plea of nolo contendere the court shall convict the defendant of the offense charged and shall proceed to sentence the defendant according to law. The judgment of the court shall reflect that the conviction was on a plea of nolo contendere. An appeal may be made from a conviction on a plea of nolo contendere as in other cases.
(9) Upon execution of a sworn complaint charging a misdemeanor, the municipal court may, in its discretion and in lieu of an arrest warrant, issue a citation requiring the appearance of the defendant to answer the charge made against him. On default of appearance, an arrest warrant may be issued for the defendant. The clerk of the court or deputy clerk may issue such citations. Issuance of an arrest warrant prior to default of appearance pursuant to citation shall comply with Section 99-3-28.
(10) The municipal court shall have the power to make rules for the administration of the court's business, which rules, if any, shall be in writing filed with the clerk of the court.
(11) The municipal court shall have the power to impose punishment of a fine of not more than One Thousand Dollars ($1,000.00) or six (6) months' imprisonment, or both, for contempt of court. The municipal court may have the power to impose reasonable costs of court, not in excess of the following:
Dismissal of any affidavit, complaint or charge
in municipal court............................. $ 50.00
Suspension of a minor's driver's license in lieu of
conviction..................................... $ 50.00
Service of scire facias or return "not found"..... $ 20.00
Causing search warrant to issue or causing prosecution
without reasonable cause or refusing to cooperate
after initiating action........................ $ 100.00
Certified copy of the court record................ $ 5.00
Service of arrest warrant for failure to answer
citation or traffic summons.................... $ 25.00
Jail cost per day................................. $ 10.00
Any other item of court cost...................... $ 50.00
No filing fee or such cost shall be imposed for the bringing of an action in municipal court.
(12) A municipal court judge shall not dismiss a criminal case but may transfer the case to the justice court of the county if the municipal court judge is prohibited from presiding over the case by the Canons of Judicial Conduct and provided that venue and jurisdiction are proper in the justice court. Upon transfer of any such case, the municipal court judge shall give the municipal court clerk a written order to transmit the affidavit or complaint and all other records and evidence in the court's possession to the justice court by certified mail or to instruct the arresting officer to deliver such documents and records to the justice court. There shall be no court costs charged for the transfer of the case to the justice court.
(13) A municipal court judge shall expunge the record of any case in which an arrest was made, the person arrested was released and the case was dismissed or the charges were dropped or there was no disposition of such case.
SECTION 3. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after July 1, 2005.